Ethics: definition, principles, meaning, ethical issues, ethical dilemma, code of ethics (2023)


Ethics are very important in the business world. It is the study of morally appropriate behavior and decisions and the examination of what should be done. Ethics helps shape and shape human behavior. Helps employees to carry out their tasks.

However, ethics cannot be taught unless we "practice what we preach." Otherwise, the effect of the sermon will last as long as a house of cards.

Learn about: 1. Introduction to ethics 2. Definition and characteristics of ethics 3. Principles 4. Importance 5. Approaches 6. Factors 7. Code 8.Religion and ethical behavior 9. Ethical dilemma (with examples) 10. Ethical problems (with classifications) 11. Thoughts 12. Development 13. Methods of inculcating ethics 14. Guidelines for ethical conduct.

Ethics: Introduction, Definition, Principles, Importance, Ethical Questions, Ethical Dilemma, Code of Ethics, Approaches and Guidelines

ethics -introduction

Ethics are very important in the business world. It is the study of morally appropriate behavior and decisions and the examination of what should be done. Ethics helps shape and shape human behavior. Helps employees to carry out their tasks. However, ethics cannot be taught unless we "practice what we preach." Otherwise, the effect of the sermon will last as long as a house of cards.


Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), on the other hand, is the process by which companies negotiate their role in society. The two terms ethics and CSR are interwoven. In fact, ethics and CSR are closely linked in many companies. In some cases, CSR is also seen as a guarantee for ethical behavior.

CSR has become a global issue and has gained prominence in every company's language and strategy. Today, an organization's image is measured by the CSR activities it carries out. Governments and many international organizations are increasingly promoting CSR and forming CSR associations.

ethics -Definition and Properties

“Ethics is the science of evaluating specifically human ends and the relation of means to those ends. In a way, it is also the art of directing the means so that they serve human ends.” —Thomas Garrett


"'Ethics' is the discipline that examines one's own moral standard or the moral standards of society. It asks how these standards apply to our lives and whether these standards are reasonable or unreasonable, that is, based on good or bad reasons. — Manuel G. Velasquez

"Ethics refers to a set of moral principles that should play a very important role in guiding the behavior of managers and employees in the operation of a company." — Dale S. Strand

“Ethics is that discipline which deals with good and evil and also deals with duty and moral obligation. Ethics is a collection of moral principles or values. – Carol Buchholtz

“Ethics is a concept of right and wrong behavior. Ethics tells us when our behavior is moral and when it is moral. Ethics deals with basic human relationships: how we think and behave towards others and how we want them to think and behave towards us”. – Post, Frederick and Lawrence


“Ethics are formalized principles derived from social values. These are moral principles derived from societal values ​​and are rules governing moral behavior and the conduct of individuals or groups of individuals doing business. — Webster's Directory

These definitions reveal the following characteristics of ethics:

(i) Ethics is a set of norms and moral values ​​acceptable in a society. It is only relevant in the context of a society.

(ii) Ethics guides human conduct or conduct. When a member of society behaves against the norms and customs, society frowns on it. Moral principles serve as a guide for personal and professional conduct. Ethics prevent people from making decisions and actions that harm society.


There are three main theories of ethics. First, utilitarian theory suggests that actions become right or wrong based on their consequences. Second, legal theory states that all human beings have certain basic rights. Third, the theory of justice requires actions to be just and just.

(iii) Ethical principles are universal in nature. These prescribe duties and virtues for everyone in a society. Ethics are important not only in business and politics, but in all human activities.

(iv) Ethical standards differ from one society to another. What is considered ethical behavior in one society may be considered unethical in another. For example, abortion and artificial birth control are taboo in most Islamic countries and Catholic Christian communities. But these practices are perfectly ethical in China, Russia, Japan and many other countries. Likewise, euthanasia (mercy killing) is legal in some countries, but strictly unethical in most countries.

(v) Ethics is normative or prescriptive in nature. It's not about what is, it's about what should be. It is not based on feelings of approval or rejection, but on principles. For example, firing an employee may be uncomfortable, but morale demands it.


(vi) Ethical standards may not be legally binding. But these are mightier than the law because they have the sanction of society. When a person's behavior is contrary to prevailing values ​​and norms, it is said to be unethical. Ethics serves as a guide to the law, pointing out its shortcomings.

(vii) Ethics relates to the behavior of individuals and groups. Ethical standards do not apply to the behavior of animals, birds and insects. Only humans have the ability to control and regulate their behavior.

(viii) Ethics is not a fixed rule. They are an expression of the attitudes and beliefs of a society. There is discretion as a person has the ability to adopt ethical standards. Ethics can differ from place to place and from time to time.

(ix) There are no clear boundaries between the ethical and the unethical. Therefore, people are often faced with ethical dilemmas where it is very difficult to make a clear decision.


(x) Ethics aims at perfection in human behavior. It guides legislators in formulating appropriate laws to regulate the behavior of all citizens. Existing norms may contain valuable ideas, but ethics lend themselves to critics and test them against ultimate norms.

(xi) The concepts of equality and justice are implicit in ethics. Fair and equitable treatment of all is their main goal.

(xii) Ethics and morality are related but not synonymous. In the words of Rogene A. Buchollz, “Ethics is concerned with formalizing ethical principles in the abstract, or with solving concrete ethical problems that individuals face in their daily lives. Morality, on the other hand, generally refers to the belief tradition that has been involved over the years. about right and wrong behavior, so that morality has its roots in a society's beliefs, while ethics aims to articulate the principles that justify human behavior. According to Clearance C. Walton, "morality is the standard an individual or group has of what is right and wrong, good and bad."

The British philosopher W.D. Gross listed six basic duties of a human being:


(i) Loyalty: not harming others.

(ii) Reparation: Reparation for those we have hurt

(iii) Gratitude: Rewarding those who have helped us

(iv) Justice: Treating people as they deserve

(v) Charity: helping others when we can

(vi) Self-improvement: improving ourselves, but not at the expense of others.


Any decision or action that fulfills any of these obligations can be considered ethical.

Ethics – 6Basic ethical principles: charity, less harm, autonomy, non-violence or peace, justice and truthfulness

Some schools of thought believe that the basic ethical principles on the basis of which various ethical theories have been developed can be considered as follows:

Beginning # 1. Charity:

The principle of charity formulates a fundamental principle of ethical behavior. This essentially means doing good to others. According to this principle, all of our thoughts and actions must be directed so that others may benefit from those thoughts and actions. This can be done without much difficulty. In general, people tend to care more about themselves than about others. Even small campaigns that we carry out can be based on this principle.

like an examFor example, imagine a person parking their motor vehicle, car, or motorcycle. He/She has to park thisPosition the vehicle so that it will not block pedestrians on the road, impede the smooth flow of traffic, or interfere with any other personThe parked vehicle. Many times people park their vehiclesLubricate the road regardless of the inconvenience caused to others.

As another example, consider an unfortunate accident where a person was hit by a vehicle and the driver of that vehicle fled. The person was seriously injured and needs urgent help. What would you do? Doing good here would mean alleviating the suffering of the injured person with immediate medical help.

Beginning #2. Minimum damage:

The second ethical principle we should keep in mind is that our actions should result in the least possible harm to others. There may be situations where, although we intend to do good to others, our actions can harm them. In such a situation, it is necessary to ensure that our actions are such as to cause the least amount of harm to others.


Consider the case of a train accident. In such a case, it is mandatory to help the injured passengers. You have to take them out of the tray; help the authorities to take the injured to the hospital, etc. On the other hand, sometimes you see that people use such incidents to steal the belongings of the injured and unfortunate people.

That's hurting yourself. In such situations, the least good thing is to stop people from acting in such unethical ways. Consider another example of an everyday event. Young people traveling on a city bus often grab a seat when it becomes available, while an elderly person or a woman accompanying a small child must travel standing up. It is your duty to offer your seat to these people if you are seated.

If you're standing and a space opens up, don't jump to reach that space and take advantage of your weakness or inability to move quickly. Let her take that place. That's the least you can do.

Beginning #3. Autonomy:

This principle essentially states that we must respect the autonomy of others in order to carry out actions. We should not force our views on others. This principle assumes that everyone knows what is good for them. It can also be seen from the point of view of the person performing the action deciding that what they are going to do is good for themselves.

As an example, consider your own case. As a student, you may have chosen a course based on your love of the subject. On the other hand, maybe some of you did the course because your parents made the decision for you. You have invaded your autonomy to make decisions about yourself. This is very common and many students end up taking a course for which they have no aptitude or dislike.

As another example, consider the case of arranged marriages in India. It is not uncommon to find parents who, based on factors such as marital status or wealth, choose a partner for their sons/daughters without caring about their children's feelings or desires. It is a clear encroachment on the autonomy of the person. Children's consent before marriage is a very important factor in the success of marriages.

Beginning #4. No violence or peace:


This principle has become very relevant today. Violence has now permeated all areas of society and has become its worst nightmare. One of the basic ethical principles is to avoid violence and not to support those who resort to it. If we do not adhere to this principle, no significant advances in ethical behavior can be made.

Our main concern is that in cases where many other options are available, there is a tendency to resort to violence. There is also an indifferent attitude towards violence between people. This is one of the main reasons for concern.

In one incident, one person was killed by a group. The police couldn't even investigate the case because the violence that ensued after this killing killed many, burned a large number of houses and injured hundreds. In this case, there was violence for no particular reason.

In one case, reported in the press, a group was raising funds for a festival. The group approached a small trader and demanded Rs. 1000. The trader refused to pay more than Rs. 250. The group resorted to violence, beating him and looting his shop. It should be remembered that donations are voluntary in nature.

However, the extortion of money in the name of religious holidays and the use of force and assault when payment is refused has now become common. As a society we have become vulnerable to violence and there is an urgent need to curb it to prevent further damage.

Therefore, the commitment to peace and non-violence is a fundamental principle of ethics. There must be a commitment not to resort to violence and to explore other better ways of solving a problem.

Beginning #5. Justice:


The principle of justice states that our actions must be such that it is fair for all parties involved. All ethical decisions must be based on the principle of fairness. There may be situations where a departure from previous practice is required. All these cases must be analyzed and justified before making a decision that differs from the previous decisions.

Think, for example, of the many development-related displacements that make headlines today. The construction of a dam, the need for a weapons test site, the need for a nuclear power plant, or the need for a highway could all require a community to be evicted to clear land for the purpose.

If you consider the specific case of a dam, it is a necessary part of infrastructure development as it provides water for irrigation and power generation. The construction of a dam serves the common good of a large part of society. However, such a project will force thousands of people off their land and threaten their livelihoods.

In general, the rehabilitation of those affected by such projects is considered inferior. They are abandoned at the end of the project, in some cases with insufficient compensation and in other cases with no compensation, land or means to earn a living. Injustice is being done to the thousands of victims here. Similar examples can be seen in many development projects.

Beginning #6. Truthfulness:

Truthfulness is the quality of telling, sticking to, or defending the truth. This seems to be a universal principle. Truthfulness also leads to other values ​​such as trustworthiness and honesty. Mahatma Gandhi emphasized this principle when he took up the struggle for freedom and called it Satyagraha, the desire for truth.

We will seldom find an example where there is no real benefit in telling the truth. In the Upanishads it says asato ma sat gamaya, which means bring me from lies to truth. Truthfulness, then, is a universal principle suggested by all religious texts. When it comes to technical measurements, it is said that the true value of a quantity is not known.


Repeated measurements allow us to get closer to a true value, called the most likely value. Also in real life there can be many cases where the truth is not known. We then accept the best possible conclusion from the available/perceived facts and circumstances as truth. This is the only way to keep a clear conscience and stay happy.

ethics -Importance of ethics in various management functions

Business ethics encompasses several characteristics, such as: B.: Reliability and transparency in customer service. Ethical business practices strengthen the customer relationship that is paramount to long-term business success. It's about creating and making a lasting impression on the minds of customers.

Such impressions help the company gain the trust of customers and do more business. Business ethics plays a very important role in various management functions.

Now let's dive into the importance of ethics in different leadership roles:

1. Ethics in finance:

It addresses various ethical dilemmas and violations in everyday financial transactions. An example of ethical violations is data falsification, where companies provide fake bank statements and other records that can be investigated. Ethics in financial transactions gained importance as nations suffered massive economic collapses due to their inadequacy.

The following is ethics in finance:

Yo Monitoring the accuracy and authenticity of trade transactions

ii. Striving to fulfill common interests

iii. Liberate economies and financial entities from greed-based methods.

2. Ethics in human resource management:

It is about enforcing employee rights in a company.

These rights are the following:

Yo You have the right to work and to be compensated for it

ii. Have a right of free association and participation

iii. Enjoy the right to fair treatment in a company

IV. Have the right to work in an environment free from hazards.

v. Blow the whistle (activity whereby an employee may raise their voice against inappropriate practices by a person within a company).

3. Ethics in marketing:

It involves a series of questions, which are the following:

Yo Misinforming customers about products or services.

ii. Set high prices for products and services.

iii. Giving customers/consumers a false impression of the properties of the products.

IV. Promotion of sexual attitudes through advertising; therefore affecting the young generation and children.

4. Ethics in production:

This is an organization's responsibility to ensure that products and production processes do not harm the environment.

Illuminates the following questions:

Yo Avoid providing services or manufacturing products that are hazardous to health. For example tobacco and alcohol.

ii. Maintain ethical relationships with the environment and avoid pollution.

Ethics: 3 basic approaches to ethical behavior

Three basic approaches to ethical behavior are proposed:

Yo Utility approach:

This approach suggests that policies and plans should be judged by their impact. Therefore, people should behave in such a way as to bring the greatest benefit to society with the least harm or cost. This approach suffers from the difficulty of seeing all the benefits and costs of a particular decision.

Research shows that CEOs prioritize only those stakeholders who have the most power (ability to influence the company), legitimacy (legal or moral claim to company resources), and urgency (demanding immediate attention). As such, only the most obvious stakeholders are likely to be considered while others are ignored.

ii. individual rights approach:

This approach proposes that people have certain fundamental rights that must be respected in all decisions. A particular decision or behavior should be avoided if it affects the rights of others.

The United States Constitution contains a Bill of Rights that may or may not be accepted worldwide. This approach can also encourage selfish behavior when a person defines a personal need or desire as a "right."

iii. justice approach:

The equity approach proposes that decision-makers be just, fair, and impartial in allocating costs and benefits to individuals and groups. Adhere to the principles of distributive justice and equity. This approach can also include redistributive justice and compensatory justice.

Cavanagh suggests that we can solve ethical problems by asking the following 3 questions about an action or decision:

1. Benefit - Does it optimize the satisfaction of all interested parties?

2. Rights - do you respect the rights of the people involved?

3. Justice - Is it consistent with the rules of the judiciary?

Another approach to solving ethical dilemmas is to apply Kant's categorical imperatives to guide our actions:

(1) A person's action is ethical only if that person is willing for everyone in a similar situation to perform the same action. This is the same as the golden rule. You should treat others as you would like to be treated yourself.

(2) A person should never treat another as a means, but always as an end. This means that an act is morally wrong for a person if that person uses others only as a means of furthering their own interests. For moral reasons, the action must not so restrict the actions of other people that they are disadvantaged in any way.

Ethics: Factors influencing individual ethics

Individual ethics are determined by the following factors:

1. Family Influences: People, like children, develop ethical standards when other family members behave ethically.

2. Peer Group Influences: Children are influenced by the behavior of their friends and peer group as they grow up. The members of the peer group are equally likely to follow a high or low standard of ethical behavior.

3. Life Experience: How a person's behavior is treated in real life situations also affects their ethics. When his behavior (good or bad) is scolded by his elders, he tends to avoid repeating it in the future because he deems it unethical and vice versa.

A person who speaks harshly will make a habit of speaking harshly if their parents or elders never contradict him and will not feel anything unethical about it.

4. Personal Values: Ethical standards change according to the priority given to a person's different behaviors. A person who believes in the material world will have different ethical standards than those who prioritize religious or social norms.

5. Situational Factors: Sometimes people behave a certain way based on situational factors. An honest man can resort to robbery when, in a crisis, he has no other means of meeting his financial needs. Although flawed in content, unethical behavior was assumed to be justified by situational factors.

Ethics - Code of Ethics

A code is a statement of guidelines, principles, or rules that guide conduct. Certainly, codes of ethics are not just for companies; they must guide the behavior of people in all organizations and in everyday life. The Code of Ethics sets out how an organization expects its employees to behave at work.

Developing a code of ethics can be a useful means of promoting ethical behavior and clarifying the company's expectations of employee behavior in different situations, and making it clear that the company expects its employees to take ethical dimensions into account in decisions and decisions acknowledge actions.

More and more companies are developing codes of ethics and conducting ethics training workshops and seminars. However, when faced with an ethical problem, managers tend to ignore ethical codes and try to solve their dilemma on their own.

Simply drafting a code of ethics is not enough, and the appointment of an ethics committee composed of internal and external directors is essential to institutionalize ethical behavior.

Such a committee may perform functions such as holding regular meetings to discuss ethical issues, addressing gray areas, communicating the Code to all members of the organization, checking for potential violations of the Code, enforcing the Code, rewarding compliance, and sanctioning of violations, reviewing and updating the code Coding and reporting committee activities to the board.

A company's management that seeks to improve the ethical behavior of its employees must not only develop a comprehensive code of ethics, but also communicate the code in its training programs, performance appraisal system, policies and procedures, and through its own actions.

You may also want to do the same for companies you do business with. For example, Reebok International has developed a set of human rights production standards for manufacturers who contract the company to supply athletic shoes.

ethics -religion and ethical behavior

Religion is very difficult to define. The Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary defines it as: the belief in the existence of a god or gods and the activities connected with their worship. Religion is important to ethics because, in many cases, our actions are governed by religious teachings, or "divine commandments" as they are sometimes called.

The underlying and most important aspect of religious belief is, or should be, that all religions fundamentally and inherently speak or proclaim ethical behavior in the same way. There is probably no religion whose teachings contradict the basic ethical principles that we have outlined.

Once we understand this aspect of religion, it will be easy to follow our beliefs and remain ethical in all our actions. Placing too much weight or credibility on external symbols or rituals associated with a religion or belief should be avoided. For a person, these rituals can have personal value and should be practiced as they see fit.

From an ethical perspective, such symbolism and practices may have their place, but it is more important to understand the unifying and lofty principles associated with religious beliefs. Only such an understanding will help us appreciate other religions and the practices associated with them. Understanding our religion in its true perspective is important in formulating our ethical standards and resolving ethical conflicts.

influence of religion:

Religion has a major, mostly positive influence in shaping our ethical behavior. Almost all religions have influenced the thinking and ethical standards of individuals and societies over the past few centuries.

Most religions support the five basic ethical principles. Many social codes of conduct have a religious sanction given by the preachers of the faith. Following a religion helps us form moral standards and reference points.

Another aspect of religious belief is the psychological impact it has on our moral behavior. Religious beliefs should lead us to morally correct actions in most cases. One aspect can be retaliation or punishment, which can be inflicted if one's actions are not in accordance with religious teachings. Another aspect is an individual's self-awareness of the correct moral position to be taken according to his or her religious beliefs.

It should also be understood that most religions set high moral or ethical standards for life. So if someone follows their religion and lives by the dictates of that belief, they are considered very moral in their actions. However, it is necessary to understand the basic principles of religion and not be guided by the trivialities of rituals and external symbolism.

There have been moments in human history when religion, through its teachings and commandments, has played the most important role in guiding people's lives. For example, in the Middle Ages, the Church had a great influence on the government of countries, as well as on people's personal lives. Religious minds shaped people's behavior more than political or social minds.

Political bosses or rulers turned to religious bosses for guidance in making decisions. Religious leaders today do not have such influence, but they still have a significant impact on our lives.

Aside from religion having a positive impact on our morality, we must also recognize that many religious practices do not always set high or acceptable moral standards. Some religious practices give women a lower status and are biased against their rights. For example, in India, sati is a practice of a woman ending her life on the same pyre when her husband dies and is cremated.

The practice has been practiced for years but has now ceased. Why the husband was not required to commit sati when the wife died is beyond comprehension or current social thinking. Therefore, not all religious practices are acceptable in the current context. In conclusion it can be said that the influence of religionin the formation of our moral life has predominatedbeen positive.

Following your beliefs is good practice, but understanding your basic principles and dogmas is very important. Only this can balance our social and religious life and lead us to morally correct behavior.

conflict with ethics:

There is no apparent conflict between religion and ethics. Sati has also been cited as an example of religious practice. NeverthelessAgain, there is no conflict as all religions generally support core ethical principles and our moral beliefs are largely shaped by our religious beliefs. Conflicts only arise because we have misunderstood our religion and follow practices that are unacceptable in today's civilized society.

Consider the case of child marriage in India. Is it a social practice or a practice sanctioned by the religion in question? Since marriages are consummated by priests belonging to a religion, they seem to have a religious sanction. However, it is not socially acceptable and violates constitutional provisions. Because of such a practice, conflicts arise.

Consider again the case of a religious procession in which thousands of people march through the streets of a city. Traffic has to be diverted, educational institutions closed and the lives of the population thrown into chaos. Is such religious practice necessary or justified? Conflicts arise not because of what a religion professes, but because of how we practice it.

There are many instances of religious practices causing havoc in people's lives. Such chaotic situations arise not because of what faith preaches, but because of our misunderstanding of religion. Conflicts can easily be avoided if the followers of such practices understand the basic tenets of the religion and follow ethical principles that are consistent with all religious preaching.

Ethics – ethical dilemma

We are confronted with ethical dilemmas almost every day, both on an individual and on a societal level. Ethical dilemmas arise because of a conflict of interest or a lack of knowledge about what is the right thing to do in a given situation. Both the individual and the community face dilemmas.

In many situations, the right action can be obvious. However, there can be many complicated situations where it is not possible to take the right measures. Ethical theories help us to overcome such situations.

One of the main causes of ethical dilemmas is the conflict of moral principles. When we choose to act on the basis of one or more moral principles that apply in a particular situation, we recognize that this is at odds with other moral principles that must be followed. For example, it is against moral principles to tell a lie or to hide the truth.

However, there may be situations where, according to an ethical theory, it is right to lie or to hide the truth. Dilemmas usually arise because of such conflicts between moral principles. We face a dilemma when our moral beliefs such as duties, rights, principles and values ​​come into conflict in a given situation.

Another reason for the ethical dilemma is the lack of clarity in a given situation. It cannot be clear whether a particular act is immoral or not. Also, the professional may not be able to decide whether it is ethical or not. Such situations often arise due to the vagueness of the respective action.

Another reason for dilemmas can be situations in which there is no agreement on the right course of action. The situation is not vague, but many people think differently about what should be done.

All options are available to those who choose them, and each of them has good reason to believe that what they are thinking is morally correct. Questions are asked about how the situation is analyzed and interpreted and how the solution is formulated. Then it is necessary to discuss and find the best option in the given situation.

Examples of ethical dilemmas:

Let's illustrate ethical dilemmas with the following two examples:

Yo As a purchasing manager in an organization, an engineer must choose from many options to purchase a specific item. It is often not the cheapest price that counts, but many other conditions such as the purchase contract and long-term advantages. On a festive occasion, one of the vendors comes with sweets and gifts for the engineer.

The supplier does not directly instruct the technician to select his item to buy, but instead gives him the gift. Is it morally correct to accept the gift? The engineer sees this as a completely normal gesture at Christmas time, since he knows him well and has spoken to him about the products for a long time.

The engineer feels that his decision to purchase any product is not determined by this gift from the supplier. However, he is concerned about the situation he is in. The supplier does not give you these gifts for free; he hopes that you will take a positive view of his product and find reasons not to take advantage of the lower offers. Now there is an ethical dilemma.

ii. A young lawyer working for a law firm is asked to take the case of a client who has come with the details of the case. The lawyer listens to what the client has to say. He examines the case in detail and finds that the client does not have a case under current law. He reports the matter to his superior and says that they shouldn't take the case because they wouldn't win it.

His manager is not satisfied and tells him that it is his duty to represent his clients' case to the best of his ability. The supervisor orders him to take on the case, find loopholes in the law that might help, and fight the case to the best of his ability. The client has promised a substantial sum in addition to the normal fees if the case is won.

The young lawyer feels the dilemma that the obligation to take over imposes on him, while his conscience plagues him because the chances of winning the case are very slim. What should one do?

Solution to an ethical dilemmas:

When faced with an ethical dilemma, depending on the complexity of the problem, one should try to find a solution based on accepted ethical principles. Ambiguities, conflicting principles and many other factors make it difficult to decide on the right course of action.

Solutions must be specific to each case, but generally may involve the following steps:

Yo Formulate some basic ethical principles that you would like to follow if you have not already done so.

ii. Gather all relevant facts of the case.

iii. Conduct an ethical analysis of the given situation, analyzing the ethical factors that dominate the problem and those prone to conflict.

IV. While it may be difficult, prioritize the ethical factors in the order that you think they should be prioritized.

v. After you have formulated your ideas, it may be worth discussing the case and the impact you think any decision or action would have with a few people close to you.

saw. Having received input from them, you can now formulate your plan of action and note any moral implications of the solution.

ethics -Ethical issues: classification and examples

It should be clear that we are discussing ethical issues that arise in the course of a professional's practice of a profession. In part, we also need to take a moral look at your personal life, since personal and professional lives are intertwined.

A rational person who wants to have a clear conscience will be confronted with many situations in their professional life that make them think about the ethics of their actions.

These problems can be divided into two main classes as described here.

Various ethical questions:

We can divide the ethical problems faced by a professional into two broad classes:

1. Microethical Questions:

They are problems that a person often faces in their daily functioning. The problems may be small, but they can upset the mind of a sane person and give him sleepless nights. These are issues where you must decide what action you should take, and if you are being prevented from taking the action you feel is right, then what to do. Many of these problems arise from time to time in a professional's life.

2. Macroethical Questions:

These themes deal with social problems that often go unaddressed or neglected to the point of gargantuan proportions. Many national disasters fall into this category, in which the engineer can only be a cog in the machine. The Bhopal gas leak is one such example.

Both types of problems deserve our attention. While the small, everyday problems need to be solved, there are also macro issues that need to be considered that have major ethical implications and benefit society in the long term.

Since macro issues are likely to be senior management, the professional may not be directly involved, but as a professional he must understand the systemic issues that cause such instances of trouble. A professional has to deal with questions like these, which help him to examine systemic problems that are of great importance.

Examples of ethical problems (with skills):

Let's illustrate this with some examples:

Yo A young engineer working on a construction site feels that the concreting of the slab is not being done properly. Too much water is added haphazardly and due to labor shortages, the concrete that is mixed on site is not placed on time. Discuss this issue with your executive engineer. The lead engineer tells him to ignore this because he has a soft corner for the contractor.

He says he's monitored many websites and knows when to act. He advises the junior engineer to ignore this and continue with the construction supervision. The junior engineer believes that this will weaken the structure and lead to leaks in the long term. What should one do?

ii. As an engineer, you walk through a construction site every day. They think that the construction company doesn't care about the safety of the workers. The rickety scaffolding is very dangerous and not properly made or supported. Workers working at height are at risk of falling and safety nets are not available. You feel that this is a dangerous situation that could potentially lead to tragedy.

You're not worried about work, but something is worrying you. Should you report your concerns or should you remain silent? What if, after a few days, you happen to read in the newspaper that a worker fell from the scaffolding and died on this very construction site? Would you regret not fulfilling your duty as an engineer?nd a professional or even as a citizen? What do you think?

iii. Take the case of a social problem. As an engineer with the Electricity Company in Delhi, he felt that his company was not doing enough to buy electricity or to inform the government that the electricity situation was getting worse.leave in a few days. When the matter was raised with his manager, he told him to remain calm as he was concernedonly with the distribution of power and not with the generation of power.

After some time, there were repeated power outages and supply failures. Low voltage caused many problems with electronic devices. No one seemed to have thought about it for many days. The public rose to arms and there were incessant protests against the balance of power.

The administration woke up and complained about the performance of the dealers. Whose fault was it? The power shortage was swept under the rug for a long time and action was only taken when it became very serious.

moral autonomy:

Moral autonomy generally refers to an individual's freedom and confidence to make moral decisions or to hold moral views. Moral autonomy arises from an inherent power for rational thought based on moral values ​​absorbed over a period of time. Professionals must, over a period of time, develop moral autonomy by acquiring the knowledge and skills needed to develop such rational thinking.

Moral autonomy is not simply an independent decision by a professional. In fact, the basis and logic behind such decisions reflect moral autonomy. Moral values ​​and ethical behavior formed from childhood provide the background for professional moral autonomy.

As a professional advances in his professional life, he will encounter many situations that will require his decisions on moral issues. The perception of such problems by a professional, the rational analysis of the situation to understand the implications and implications of the different options presented to him and finally making a decision and acting accordingly are normal events in the life of a professional.

The basic education and guidance we receive as children on moral or ethical issues will be reflected in our choices. Moral concerns based on cardinal principles will be the hallmark of our moral autonomy.

Various moral concerns may arise during professional life. This would require reflection on moral issues. An engineer in the QA department may face a situation where they are asked to provide manipulated results and may also be rewarded for doing so.

The persuasion may come from an outside party or from your own manager, who may ask you to manipulate the results. This contradicts one's own perception of what is right. Self-interest can conflict with the right actions to take, or what your conscience says is the right action. Meeting such challenges requires a moral autonomy that grows out of inherent moral power.

A young doctor working in a private hospital may find himself in a situation where the patient does not really benefit from surgery. Your superiors may ask you to perform the surgery as it gives them an opportunity to extort money from the patient.

The doctor's personal judgment may conflict with the wishes of your employer, which can create a moral dilemma. The doctor must meet the challenge by adopting a correct moral position that may run counter to his personal interests.

How do you deal with such situations and act morally correct? A professional ethics course can give you guidance on how to behave properly. All professionals must acquire such qualities through training and the development of the skills required for the purpose.

The following skills are required to face such situations and take actions that ensure peace of mind and a clear conscience:

Yo Develop skills to recognize problems of a moral nature in professional work. A problem can have many dimensions, but it is important to recognize the moral aspects of the problem and relate them to other dimensions of the problem. The moral values ​​acquired in childhood, school and university are related to this.

ii. Develop the ability to critically analyze a moral issue or situation. Where the action to be taken is clear and no conflict is faced, the situation is simple. However, we are very often faced with conflict on moral issues, and it may be necessary to consider the pros and cons of options for action in order to properly decide what should be done.

iii. Develop sensitivity to real difficulties. Some moral issues may require action that, on the face of it, violates some moral principles that individuals hold sacrosanct. In such cases, some flexibility in thinking and making decisions for the benefit of the people involved may be required.

IV. Develop ingenuity, creativity and imagination to find alternative solutions to complex problems. Many problems create situations that require unusual solutions. A true professional develops creative solutions to such complex problems through critical analysis of all factors and imaginative understanding of possible alternatives.

v. Develop coherence in thinking about moral issues. Consistency comes from knowing and understanding similar situations and comparing facts in one situation with those in others.

saw. Develop the ability to clearly express opinions to others on moral issues. This will allow others to understand the logic behind each proposed action on a specific moral issue. Understanding ethical principles and theories will enable one to express one's views fully.

vii. Develop moral integrity and credibility. This can be strengthened in your actions in all areas of life, be it professionally or privately. Consistency in the individual's moral perspective in all areas lends credibility to his views on moral issues.

VIII. Develop tolerance and try to understand other people's points of view on moral conflicts. Moral problems are very often not simple enough to generate an algorithmic solution. People who think rationally may have different perspectives on the problem. One must develop the ability to appreciate different but rational points of view.

ix. Develop the ability to process moral issues and solutions even in cases in which you are not directly involved. A general interest in moral questions and problems, also in other jobs, can be helpful in your own job. Keep moral problems and solutions in mind and try to form your own opinion in such cases.

X. Develop your own moral standards or benchmarks to apply to situations you may face. Over time, this will help you create a benchmark against which to judge many situations.

Ethics: Thoughts on Ethics (Indian and Global Thoughts)

Ethical canons have been around for a long time. In India they are found in ancient texts such as the Vedas, Upanishads and scriptures. In the western worldSocrates, there have been many philosophers who have given ethical considerations a prominent place in their speeches and writings.

1. Indian thoughtsabout ethics:

Many humanistic ideals and virtues or ethical principles are upheld in the Vedas and Upanishads. These include truthfulness, honesty, integrity, philanthropy, gratitude, forgiveness, non-violence, loyalty, etc.

The early periods witnessed the development of the four castes (chatur vamas). Although the idea was noble, it did not work as a measure of social justice. Each vama had duties appropriate to his function.

Also the concept of life cycle of childhood, student, head of family, renunciation and sanyas was practiced. Each stage of life has its own moral code for the people in that group. The Gita explained the concept of the right to act without claiming the fruits of that action.

Later periods also included writings by Manu (Manushastras) and Kautilya (on politics and economics) which talk about the way various human activities should be carried out and the ethical aspects of those activities.

Buddhist Thoughts:

Buddha, who attained enlightenment and preached the basic teachings of Buddhism, gave people five basic rules to follow. These relate to abstinence from:

Yo Injure/kill a living being;

ii. stealing the property of others;

iii. False and excessive indulgence in sensual pleasures;

IV. telling lies; Y

v. take intoxicants;

Buddhism is essentially based on virtuous ethical principles, as the Buddha praised people for acquiring qualities such as truthfulness, righteousness, benevolence, compassion, sympathy, temperance, patience and purity. The Buddha also rejected the concept of caste and race based on birth.

There are many saints and sadhus who have spoken about the right way of life.

The views of some of the most recent thinkers on the subject are discussed below:

a. Swami Vivekananda:

Swami Vivekananda was a great philosopher who influenced ethical thinking by preaching around the world. Swami Vivekananda, real name Narendra Nath, was born into a wealthy family in Kolkata on January 12, 1863 to Vishwanath Datta, a successful lawyer, and Bhuvaneshwari Devi.

He was endowed with deep faith and strong character. He graduated from Calcutta University and had acquired a considerable knowledge of Western philosophy and history. He was associated with the Brahmo movement for some time. His spiritual inclination was evident from childhood as he practiced meditation as a child.

His meeting with his guru Sri Ramakrishna took place when he visited the latter to ask him about the existence of God. Ramakrishna was able to convince him of the existence of God and had a great influence on young Narendra's future life. His guru influenced him so much that he later made it his life's work to spread his guru's thoughts around the world.

His speech to the World Parliament of Religions in 1893 made him known as a great orator and thinker.

Some highlights of his ethical thoughts can be summarized as follows:

Yo He advocated monism, meaning that the whole world is one. In this concept lies the explanation of ethics, morality and spirituality.

ii. Ethics is only a means to an end. You have to be clear about the end and only that clarifies the sense of ethics.

iii. The basic principle of ethics is the Vedantic idea that you are the infinite.

IV. The sense of unity represented by "I am the universe" is central to all ethical thinking and leads to doing good to others.

v. While your senses say, "I come first," ethics say, "I am last."

saw. When the means are right, the results must come; Media attention is therefore the secret of success in life.

vii. Utilitarianism and the ethical codes based on it are only valid for a certain time. Codes of ethics based on spirituality relate us to the infinite and also encompass society.

VIII. Work to alleviate misery, for only in this way can you find happiness.

b. Mahatma Gandhi:

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, commonly known as Mahatma Gandhi, was one of the greatest leaders the world has seen in recent memory. MK Gandhi was born on October 2, 1869 in Porbandar, Gujarat. He studied law at the University of London. After unsuccessful attempts as a lawyer, he joined a law firm in South Africa. The apartheid system in South Africa brought him into contact with white rule and colonialism for the first time.

Gandhiji, popularly known as Mahatma and affectionately known as Bapu, was the most prominent leader in India's struggle for freedom. Also recognized as the father of the nation, he was instrumental in a nonviolent movement that ultimately won India's freedom.

Mahatma Gandhi was one of the leaders who believed in some basic ethical principles. He was adamant that satyagraha, which literally means desire for truth (and the originator of the civil disobedience movement), and ahimsa, which means non-violence, would be very powerful tools in influencing the British colonizers to give up India's quest to accept freedom.

The movement he led was unique in world history because of the mass base it was able to generate and the nonviolent means it employed.

Aside from being a political leader, Mahatma was also a leader of the people, identifying with them. He was able to build their support by setting an example with his way of life. He proposed many theories of a self-sufficient rural economy and worked tirelessly for the abolition of untouchability and the empowerment of women.

Below are some of the Mahatma's notable thoughts on ethics:

Yo Sympathize with every human being, as this will help you practice the highest form of ethics.

ii. A moral action must come from within, of one's own free will.

iii. The means must be good; impure means lead to an impure end.

IV. Outer actions must be done with pure mind and selfless mind.

v. The highest form of morality is altruism.

saw. True economics never violates the highest ethical standards.

vii. Business that harms an individual or society cannot be ethical.

VIII. Life should always become easier and we should become more self-controlled.

C. Rabindranath Tagore:

Rabindranath Tagore was born in Bengal in 1861. He received his initial education at home and then went to England for formal training. There he did not complete his studies and returned home. He began his experimental school at Santiniketan, where he tested the educational ideals of the Upanishads.

Rabindranath Tagore was a scholar, poet, philosopher and writer. His early Bengali writings contained poems that were translated for Western readers and became very popular. Rabindra Sangeet is a living tradition in his music and still enjoys great popularity. He wrote many poems, plays, essays, dramas, travelogues and autobiographies. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature for Gitanjali.

Some of Rabindranath Tagore's prominent thoughts on ethics are as follows:

Yo The spiritual aspect of man represents sympathy and love, while the moral side represents selflessness and control over desires. They should be taken together and never separately.

ii. A moral life is one in which a person moves from a life of desire to a life of purpose through the formation of his character.

iii. We achieve perfection in life by constantly giving up.

IV. A moral rhythm must be maintained in all creations to save them from destruction.

v. Man's greed exaggerates the lust for sensual pleasures. This breaks the harmony in life and we lose true values.

d. Sri Aurobindo:

Sri Aurobindo was born on August 15, 1872 in Calcutta (now Calcutta). He completed his school and university education in London. After his return to India he worked for several years in Baroda in the service of the Maharaj while at the same time teaching at a university. His first action in the struggle for freedom fell at this time, when he was involved in planning an uprising against British rule.

He then returned to Calcutta and was the first revolutionary to put forward the idea of ​​full Indian independence. He was imprisoned several times for his revolutionary writings. In 1910 he retired from politics and began spiritual activities. He spent the next 40 years in Pondicherry, where he founded the Aurobindo Ashram. He proposed the concept of integral yoga, which not only liberates man's consciousness but also transforms his nature.

His main thoughts on ethics are as follows:

Yo Our real enemy is not a force outside of ourselves, but our own weakness, our cowardice, our selfishness, our hypocrisy, our blind sentimentality.

ii. Goodness, not utility, should be the standard for attaining virtue.

iii. Utilitarianism means reducing ethical action to moral mathematics, but it is alien to the instinct and intuition of the ethical being.

IV. Human perfection is achieved through will, character, self-discipline and self-mastery.

v. Ethics does not lie in the calculation of good and evil, but in the attempt to grow in the divine nature.

saw. Virtue arises from our struggle to overcome our pleasure-seeking nature.

2. Global thoughts on ethics:

Western thinking about ethics has a long history. Great thinkers like - Socrates proposed many ethical principles. For some time at the height of the Christian era, ethics was governed by the church. More recent thinkers include Gagne, Kohlberg, Gilligan, and Kant, who studied theories of moral development.

The principles set forth by some adherents of Western philosophy are listed below:

the. Socrates:

Socrates (469-399 BC) was born in Athens. Although he was a great philosopher and thinker, he wrote nothing. The Socratic method was question and answer, and much of what is known about Socrates comes from the writings of his students, Plato and Aristotle. The dialectic method is attributed to Socrates.

By questioning people about their claims, this method ultimately reveals the correct position on the issue. Socrates himself never took a position. Socrates was imprisoned for corrupting the youth and working against the country's religion. He was sentenced to death. He drank poison in the company of his friends and died.

Socrates defined virtue as knowledge and believed that if one knows good, he will always do good. Those who do evil do not know what good means.

These thoughts, popularly known as the Socratic paradoxes, have been listed as follows:

Yo Nobody desires evil.

ii. No one errs or does evil voluntarily or knowingly.

iii. Virtue, all virtue, is knowledge.

IV. Virtue is enough for happiness.

Everything that is known about Socrates comes from the writings of his students. Plato described Socrates' thoughts in great detail. Many scholars believe that it is impossible to distinguish Socrates' thoughts from those of Plato.

Some of Socrates' most important ideas and observations are listed below:

Yo The only good is knowledge and the only evil is ignorance.

ii. Since I have the fewest desires, I am closest to the gods.

iii. There is nothing permanent in human affairs; Avoid excessive joy in prosperity and excessive depression in adversity.

IV. The only true wisdom lies in knowing that you know nothing.

v. To find yourself, think for yourself.

saw. I can't teach anyone anything; I can only encourage you to think.

vii. Education ignites a flame and fills no vessel.

VIII. If you don't get what you want, you suffer; if you get what you don't want, you suffer; Even if you get exactly what you want, you still suffer because you can't hold on to it forever. Your mind is your situation. He wants to be free from change, free from pain, free from the obligations of life and death. But change is the law, and no amount of pretense will change that reality.

ix. I am neither Athenian nor Greek, but a citizen of the world.

X. Contentment is natural wealth, luxury is artificial poverty.

xi. Spend your time improving yourself on other men's writings so you can easily get to what others have worked hard for.

xiii. From the deepest desires often springs the deadliest hatred.

XIII. As you can see, the secret of happiness is not in seeking more, but in developing the ability to enjoy less.

xv. Don't think of the believers who praise all your words and deeds; but those who kindly point out their mistakes.

b. Confucius:

Confucius (551-479 BC) was a Chinese social philosopher and thinker who is credited with the well-known saying: "What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others." He is a believer in the principle of virtue ethics . .

He emphasized the following ethical principles:

Yo Personal and state morality

ii. Correction of social relations.

iii. justice and sincerity

IV. Family loyalty, ancestor worship and respect for elders.

v. Superiority of personal past life over explicit rules of conduct

saw. self-cultivation

vii. imitation of moral models

VIII. Seeking expert judgment rather than knowing the rules.

ix. Doing the right things at the right time

X. Maintain existing norms to maintain an ethical social fabric

xi. Breaking the rules to achieve ethical good.

Now let's understand the last point with an example: someone who knows that you are a scammer comes up to you and asks for the address of someone nearby. You know the address and the person who lives there. Telling the truth is a universal value. But here, should you tell the truth? Not sure what the person with the address will do. So you tell him you don't know the address. It is very likely that something good will come from telling this lie.

Ethics - Development: Greek ethics, medieval ethics and modern ethics

Ethics has developed as a science of moral reasoning in the following phases:

1. Greek ethics:

He advocates that ethics deals with a person's duties as a moral citizen of the nation. A good or ethical person is one who fulfills his or her duties as a good citizen. Famous representatives of this view are Socrates, Plato and Aristotle.

2. Medieval Ethics:

This is the time when Christianity spread in Europe. He spread the idea that ethics is not simply a part of politics (as Greek philosophy put it). It's not about a person's duties. Rather, it is about increasing the inner aspect of a person's morale.

3. Modern ethics:

This era of ethics believes in taking actions that result in good for ourselves and others. The point is to determine the rigidity of the file. Talk about what individuals or institutions should do.

The moral theories defending modern ethics deal with two components:

(a)Value theory or theory of the good:

He decides what is good or valuable without making it explicit. It focuses on the qualities we want to realize in our actions. These properties can be natural laws, human freedom, social solidarity, or a combination of one or more of these.

(b)legal theory:

It does not say what qualities are valuable, but what individuals and institutions should do when responding to valuable qualities.

Ethics: the 2 main methods used to inculcate ethics: Hotline for reporting fraud and irregularities

Fraud is a big problem for executives. It must be ensured that employees and managers practice ethical behavior. Anyone could be involved in a scam; a person may have a legitimate interest or a situation may compel them to commit the act.

Whistleblowing may be required in a variety of business situations, when a manager or a subordinate engages in an unacceptable practice, or when the boss directs something unacceptable relating to the environment. Two methods can be used to teach ethics to employees of organizations: whistleblowing and the fraud hotline.

the. Complaint:

In a football game, if a forward is offside or a defender commits a foul, the referee uses his whistle to immediately correct the foul committed. Similarly, in organizations, whenever an evil or unethical act is committed, someone must blow the whistle to warn the wrong employee.

Whistleblowing means drawing attention to an irregularity when it occurs within an organization. The Accountability Project lists a few ways to blow the whistle.

Some of these are the following:

a. Report illegal activities or violations of the law to the appropriate authorities

b. Refusing to participate in workplace misconduct

C. Giving testimony in a court proceeding in a departmental investigation or in court

i.e. Disclosure of evidence of wrongdoing to the media by anyone other than the spokesperson.

ii. Fraud hotline:

The Fraud Hotline is a mechanism for reporting concerns about inappropriate, illegal activities or anything that may damage the Company's image. The most important and most frequent hotline is the convenience telephone. The manager responsible for upholding ethics can be reached through a 24-hour hotline system. The hotline is the most effective system that a company can use to enable employees, customers and even suppliers to provide information anonymously.

The witness or observer of an unethical incident must forward the message and the voice is recorded at the other end. The recipient of the message, a trained live interviewer on the other end of the line, may want to gather more information to test the magnitude of the information's severity.

For example, if you, as an employee of a large company, have information about a fraudulent incident that is happening at the company, you may not want to speak to your manager. The supervisor can commit the fraud. In such cases, one should bring the matter to the attention of one's superior's supervisor. However, this can be a dangerous step as the elderly person could also get caught in the scam chain.

Also, you might not want to speak to other employees because you're not sure how they would react. By protecting yourself, an employee can access information without revealing their name and contact information. If the identity is revealed, the experienced interviewer can ask pertinent questions to get all the pertinent information you need so you can raise the matter with the company. The hotlines operate 24 hours a day, 365 days a year and are equipped for the different languages ​​spoken in a company.

organizational units:

It has already been established that the code of conduct must be anchored in a formal document. At the same time, organizations must train new employees and existing employees, create an environment conducive to the promotion of ethical behavior and demonstration by the leadership team.

The following measures can be taken:

1. The business conduct process should be an integral part of the induction program for new employees. Management should message them frequently, bearing in mind that "it's easier to make the doll when the clay is soft."

2. Employees must be aware of the Company's Code of Conduct. The Legal Department must design a “Legal Compliance Course Syllabus” and the course must be conducted by experienced staff. These courses must be compulsory and staff must be evaluated.

3. Management-employee interaction session is a great platform to raise employee awareness and is paramount when management can share certain do's and don'ts regarding behavioral disposition. These interaction sessions foster employee relationships.

4. Internal communications play an important role in communicating standards of business conduct in an informal and non-teaching manner, using examples from real-life situations to convey acceptable behavior.

Organizations can definitely benefit from adopting these practices in a planned manner.

Inculcating ethics through culture:

An organization must create a culture of ethical behavior. The processes must be well defined so that decision makers can make the right decisions among the available alternatives. Organizational culture needs to develop employees to evaluate them through self-inquiry.

Sasikar 2010 proposes three dimensions of self-inquiry:

1. Are my actions consistent with the company values ​​of uncompromising honesty and integrity?

2. Will my actions stand up to public scrutiny?

3. Does my action protect the company's reputation as an ethical company?

ethics and virtue:

It is just as important to be virtuous as it is to be ethical. Some of the virtues one should possess are benevolence, joy, cooperation, courage, determination, humility, tolerance and wisdom. Other virtues are mercy, obedience, cleanliness and introversion.

Ethics - Guidelines for ethical conduct

Although each person or group has their own set of ethical values, some guidelines have been prescribed that must be followed:

1. Obey the Law – Following prevailing legal practice in a country is consistent with ethical values.

2. Telling the truth: Disclosing fair accounting results to stakeholders and telling the truth is also an ethical behavior of managers.

3. Respect for people: Management ethics requires managers to show respect to everyone they come in contact with.

4. The Golden Rule: The golden rule of business is, “Treat others as you would like to be treated.” Following this will always result in ethical behavior.

5. Above all, do no harm: Even if the law does not prohibit the use of chemicals in the manufacture of certain products, managers should refrain from using them if their use turns out to be harmful to the environment.

6. Practice participation instead of paternalism: Managers should not decide for themselves what is good or bad for different stakeholders. They must assess their needs, analyze them in terms of business needs, and integrate the two needs by allowing different stakeholders to participate in decision-making processes.

Related posts:

  1. Essay on Environmental Ethics (310 words)
  2. Business ethics: Notes on business ethics

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